Object Oriented Concepts

Object orientation is a popular programming model that focuses on development of classes. Classes contain the logic and data of the application, which are the used in development by creating, or instantiating, objects from those classes.

Object orientation allows developers to design applications in such a way technical concepts and problem domain concepts are kept separate.

Why would I want to do that?

Let’s be sure we understand the term ‘problem domain’ first. The problem domain is the functionality and data that is needed to meet the application’s requirements. It excludes the technical and framework concepts that are used to help deliver the requirements.

This approach brings several major benefits:

  • The problem domain changes at a different rate to the technology it uses. As developers, when a new version of the technology we use becomes available we want to make that as simple as possible. Well designed systems allow this to happen, and good understanding of object oreintation makes this even more simple.
  • Often the teams or levels of expertise required to maintain problem domain functionality are different to those for the frameworks that run this technology. Keeping the problem domain separate helps to enable this.
  • Problem domain logic is where application developers can add the most value to their clients, and keeping it separate from the technology helps to increase the lifetime of the problem domain logic.

Now all of this is fine, but it requires skill, experience and even good taste to achieve this! It is also true that this sort of approach with object orientation in not a universal approach. It takes longer to build applications this way, so the approach is only applicable where you are building software that needs to last for years.

Also, other approaches such as functional programming can be better suited; it just depends on what you are building, its lifetime and your knowledge and experience.

To learn more from the definitive source consider reading Domain Driven Design, by Eric Evans. While it’s a great book it takes some time to really understand how to apply what it teaches.

Here is an example of a simple object oriented Python module:

simple oo example
class Pet:
   """ This class defines Pet, which is an animal kept by a human for domestic purposes" """
   def __init__(self, name):
       self.name = name
       self.hello = "None"

   def speak(self):
       """ sample - maybe lots of code in this """
       return self.hello

   def swim(self):
       return "splash"

mypet = Pet("Goldie") # i am an object: an instance of the class Pet


Here we have a Pet class. The Pet can speak and swim. Notice how we use real world terminology, rather than technical words, as far as someone who uses Pet is concerned. Inside Pet, it does get a bit technical but that is hidden from the developer who uses Pet. This sort of hiding is called encapsulation.


What is we have different type of Pet? Goldfish? Dogs? Cats? Even a python?

If we start to observe concepts that are similar, but have different behaviors and / or data, it might be an indicator that we need to use inheritance.

You can easily identify of inheritance is needed if you see concepts that relate to other concepts with the phrase ‘is a’. A dog is a pet. So is a cat. A python might be too, but it is also a programming language! In this case lets assume it is a pet.

We can draw this on a diagram:


Dog, Cat, and Python inherit from Pet. We can also say that Pet is the superclass, and the others are subclasses.

Here it is in code:

simple oo example

class Pet:
   def __init__(self, name):
       self.name = name
       self.hello = None

   def speak(self):
       """ sample - maybe lots of code in this """
       return self.hello

class Dog(Pet):
   def __init__(self, name, license_num):
       Pet.__init__(self, name)
       self.hello = "woof"

       # i can specialize and add to subclass
       self.license_num = license_num

   def speak(self):
       """ reuse or embelish code from superclass """
       return Pet.speak(self)

mypet = Pet("Goldie")

mypet = Dog("Bogart", "AB56674")

# i just tell it to speak


Notice how the subclass can use the superclasses data and functions?

Here’s a quick guide to Python OO: https://python.swaroopch.com/oop.html

But how do I know which classes I need?

  • Think about your problem domain. Find some related documentation (ideally from the person who is requesting the development). Failing that, talk to the person who made the request. Note down what they are asking you.
  • When you have the notes and/or documentation, use a highlighter so mark all of the nouns. So, in a human resources example, you might highlight employee, job, department, and company. Think of some others…
  • Get a large piece of paper and small yellow stickies. Alternatively, use a modeling tool. For example: https://www.genmymodel.com/
  • Now, either write each noun on a separate sticky, or start to build a model. We’ll show the modeling tool. It will quickly become be obvious how to do this with stickies.
  1. Some comments:
    1. Keep problem domain code separate from technical code. Why?
    2. Don’t spend too long modeling. Start coding and demoing as soon as you can. Why?
    3. Focus on what your classes do, not what they need to know. Why?
    4. Define all classes in docstrings. Why?
    5. Decomposition and business boundaries. Why?
    6. State transitions.
    7. GenMyModel is not free; use draw.io (but you lose code generation).
  2. There’s loads more to learn! Here’s some resources:
    1. GenMyModel: https://www.genmymodel.com
    2. DDD book: https://www.infoq.com/minibooks/domain-driven-design-quickly
    3. OO in Python: https://realpython.com/python3-object-oriented-programming/
    4. More Python OO: https://jeffknupp.com/blog/2014/06/18/improve-your-python-python-classes-and-object-oriented-programming/
    5. OO thought process: https://www.amazon.com/Object-Oriented-Thought-Process-Developers-Library/dp/0321861272
    6. Conway’s law: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conway%27s_law
    7. Class models: http://www.agilemodeling.com/artifacts/classDiagram.htm


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